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Medical Students – Educational Tracks - Medical Education & Simulation Elective Central Valley

Program Details

Goal: To introduce novice resident learners to medical education and simulation and promote their interest in pursuing a med-ed or simulation academic career.

Duration: Four weeks


At the end of this four-week period, learners will:

  1. Understand the basic principles of medical simulation and how it is applied in current medical education.
  2. Comprehend the principles of adult learning theory and how it applies to medical education.
  3. Apply adult learning theory by creating a simulation case(s) or other equivalent didactic activity.
  4. Learn at least two different debriefing strategies (plus/delta; advocacy-inquiry; rapid-cycling debriefing; blind debriefing; video guided debriefing)
  5. Develop an outline for a deliverable research or scholarship project using principles of educational research including developing a question, conducting a literature search and drafting an outline.

At the conclusion of these four weeks, participants will have:

  1. Developed one Simulation Case or equivalent educational activity on topic of choice.
  2. Facilitated 1 simulation or educational didactic including but not limited to monthly resident/medical student simulations, procedure laboratories, just-in-time simulations or in-situ simulations.
  3. Developed the outline for a scholarship or research project (within medical education or simulation).

Program Outline

Week 1 Orientation. Introduction to Medical Education, Simulation and Debriefing Theories
Identification of interests and project outline
Observation of simulation operations and debriefings
Identification of research/scholarship project or question
Week 2 Simulation Case Development / Educational Activity Development
Week 3 Implementation of Simulation Case and Debriefing or Educational Didactic and Evaluations
Week 4 Submission of Scholarship or Research Project

Suggested Bibliography to Supplement Elective

Archer, J. C. (2010). State of science of in health professional education: Effective feedback. Medical Education, 44, 101-108.

Biech, E. (2008).The ASTD handbook for workplace professionals, Identifying learning and performance gaps. Danvers, MA: The American Society for Training and Development.

Boulet, J. R., Jeffries, P. R., Hatala, R. A., Korndorffer, J. R., Feinstein, D. M., & Roche, J. P. (2011). Research regarding methods of assessing learning outcomes. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(7), 48-51.

Bradley, P. (2006). The history of simulation in medical education and possible future directions. Medical Education, 40, 254-262.

Carkhuff, M. H. (1996). Reflective learning: Work groups as learning groups. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 27(5), 209-214.

Cooper, J. B., et al. (2011). Design and evaluation of simulation scenarios for a program introducing patient safety, teamwork, safety leadership, and simulation to healthcare leaders and managers. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(4), 231-238. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e31821da9ec

Dieckmann, P., Friis, S. M., Lippert, A., & Ostergaard, D. (2009). The art and science of debriefing in simulation: Ideal and practice. Medical Teacher, 31, e287-e294.

Dismukes, R. K., Gaba, D. M., & Howard, S. K. (2006). So many roads: Facilitated debriefing in healthcare. Simulation in Healthcare, 1(1), 23–25.

Downing, S. M., & Yudkowsky, R. (Eds.). (2009). Assessment in health professions education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Eppich, W., Howard, V., Vozenilek, J., & Curran, I., (2011). Simulation- based team training in healthcare. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(7), S14-S1. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e318229f550

Fanning, R. M., & Gaba, D. M. (2007), The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simulation in Healthcare, 2(2) 115-125. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e3180315539

Finn, G. M., & Garner, J. (2011). Twelve tips for implementing a successful peer assessment. Medical Teacher, 30(6) 443-446.

Glavin, R. (2009). Using simulations for education, training, and research. Simulation in Healthcare, 4(3) 184. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e3181abea0b

Green, M. L. (2001). Identifying, appraising, and implementing medical education curricula: A guide for medical educators. Annals of Internal Medicine, 135(10), 889-896.

Harden, R., & Gleeson, F. (1979). Assessment of clinical competence using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Medical Education, 13, 41-54.

Hodges, B. et al. (1999). OSCE checklists do not capture increasing levels of expertise. Academic Medicine, 74, 1129-1134.

Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel. (2011). Core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice: Report of an expert panel. Interprofessional Education Collaborative.

Issenberg, B. S., McGaghie, W. C., Petrusa, E. R., Gordon, D. L., & Scalese, R. J. (2005). Features and uses of high-fidelity simulation that lead to effective learning: A BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher, 27(1), 10-28. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2923.37.s1.10.x

Kern, D. E., Thomas, P. A., & Hughes, M.T. (Eds.). (2009). Curriculum development for medical education: A six-step approach (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Kirkpatrick, D. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2007). The four levels: A practical guide for effective evaluation of training programs. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Meyer, M. N., Connors, H., Hou, Q.,& Gajewski, B. (2011). The effect of simulation on clinical performance. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(5), 269-277. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e318223a048

Newble, D., & Swanson, D. (1988). Psychometric characteristics of the objective structured clinical examination. Medical Education, 22, 325-334.

Norcini, J. J., et al. (1993). Scoring and standard setting with standardized patients. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 3, 322-332.

Prideaux, D. (2003). ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: Curriculum design. BMJ, 326: 268-70. doi: 10.1136/bmj.326.7383.268

Raemer, D., Anderson, M., Cheng, A., Fanning, R., Nadkarni, V., & Savoldelli, G. (2011). Research regarding debriefing as part of the learning process. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(7), 552-557.

Ravert, P. (2010). Developing and implementing a simulation program: Baccalaureate nursing education. In W. M. Nehring & F. R. Lashley (Eds.), High-fidelity patient simulation in nursing education (pp.59-74). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Barlett Publishers.

Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., Dufresne, R., & Raemer, D. B. (2006). There’s no such thing as “non-judgmental” debriefing: A theory and method for debriefing with good judgment. Simulation in Healthcare, 1(1) 49-55

Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., & Raemer, D. B. (2007). Which reality matters? Questions on the path to high engagement in healthcare simulation. Simulation in Healthcare. 2(3), 161- 163. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e31813d1035

Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., Raemer, D. B., & Eppich, W. J. (2008). Debriefing as formative assessment: Closing performance gaps in medical education. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15(11), 1010-1016. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00248.x

Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., Rivard, P., Dufresne, R. L., & Raemer, D. B. (2007). Debriefing with good judgment: combining rigorous feedback with genuine inquiry. Anesthesiology Clinics, 25(2), 361-376.

Salas, E., Klein, C., King, H., Salisbury, M., Augenstein, J. S., Birnbach, D. J., Robinson, D. W., & Upshaw, C. (2008). Debriefing medical teams: 12 evidence-based best practices and tips. Joint Commission Journal of Quality and Patient Safety, 34(9), 518-27.

Scheffer, S. et al (2008). Assessing student’s communication skills: Validation of a global rating. Advances in Health Science Education, 13, 583-592.

Simon R., Rudolph, J. W., & Raemer, D. B. (2009). Debriefing assessment for simulation in healthcare–student version. Cambridge, MA: Center for Medical Simulation.

St. Pierre, M., Hofinger, G., Buerschaper, C., & Simon, R. (2011). Crisis management in acute care settings: Human factors, team psychology, and patient safety in a high stakes environment. New York, NY: Springer

Teharani, A., Hauer, K.E., O’Sullivan, P. (2008). Can simulations measure empathy?

Vu, N. V., Barrows, H. S., Marcy, M. L., Verhulst, S. J., Colliver, J. A., & Travis, T. (1992) Six years of comprehensive, clinical performance-based assessment using standardized patients at the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Academic Medicine 67(1),

Wang, E. E., Kharasch, M., & Kuruna, D. (2011). Facilitative debriefing techniques for simulation-based learning. Academic Emergency Medicine, 18(2), e5-e5. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.01001.x.

Ziv, A., Wolpe. P. R., Small, S. D., & Glick, S. (2003). Simulation-based medical education: an ethical imperative. Academic Medicine, 78(8), 783-788.

How to Apply

Elective Directors
Dr. Nur-Ain Nadir, MD
Julia Hutchison,MD

Interest in medical education and simulation
M3 year: Successful completion of core clerkships

For more information and to apply to this elective, contact Michele Helwick, GME Manager:

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