Goal: To introduce novice resident learners to medical education and simulation and promote their interest in pursuing a med-ed or simulation academic career.
Duration: Four weeks
At the end of this four-week period, learners will:
- Understand the basic principles of medical simulation and how it is applied in current medical education.
- Comprehend the principles of adult learning theory and how it applies to medical education.
- Apply adult learning theory by creating a simulation case(s) or other equivalent didactic activity.
- Learn at least two different debriefing strategies (plus/delta; advocacy-inquiry; rapid-cycling debriefing; blind debriefing; video guided debriefing)
- Develop an outline for a deliverable research or scholarship project using principles of educational research including developing a question, conducting a literature search and drafting an outline.
At the conclusion of these four weeks, participants will have:
- Developed one Simulation Case or equivalent educational activity on topic of choice.
- Facilitated 1 simulation or educational didactic including but not limited to monthly resident/medical student simulations, procedure laboratories, just-in-time simulations or in-situ simulations.
- Developed the outline for a scholarship or research project (within medical education or simulation).
|Week 1||Orientation. Introduction to Medical Education, Simulation and Debriefing
Identification of interests and project outline
Observation of simulation operations and debriefings
Identification of research/scholarship project or question
|Week 2||Simulation Case Development / Educational Activity Development|
|Week 3||Implementation of Simulation Case and Debriefing or Educational Didactic and Evaluations|
|Week 4||Submission of Scholarship or Research Project|
Suggested Bibliography to Supplement Elective
Archer, J. C. (2010). State of science of in health professional education: Effective feedback. Medical Education, 44, 101-108.
Biech, E. (2008).The ASTD handbook for workplace professionals, Identifying learning and performance gaps. Danvers, MA: The American Society for Training and Development.
Boulet, J. R., Jeffries, P. R., Hatala, R. A., Korndorffer, J. R., Feinstein, D. M., & Roche, J. P. (2011). Research regarding methods of assessing learning outcomes. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(7), 48-51.
Bradley, P. (2006). The history of simulation in medical education and possible future directions. Medical Education, 40, 254-262.
Carkhuff, M. H. (1996). Reflective learning: Work groups as learning groups. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 27(5), 209-214.
Cooper, J. B., et al. (2011). Design and evaluation of simulation scenarios for a program introducing patient safety, teamwork, safety leadership, and simulation to healthcare leaders and managers. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(4), 231-238. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e31821da9ec
Dieckmann, P., Friis, S. M., Lippert, A., & Ostergaard, D. (2009). The art and science of debriefing in simulation: Ideal and practice. Medical Teacher, 31, e287-e294.
Dismukes, R. K., Gaba, D. M., & Howard, S. K. (2006). So many roads: Facilitated debriefing in healthcare. Simulation in Healthcare, 1(1), 23–25.
Downing, S. M., & Yudkowsky, R. (Eds.). (2009). Assessment in health professions education. New York, NY: Routledge.
Eppich, W., Howard, V., Vozenilek, J., & Curran, I., (2011). Simulation- based team training in healthcare. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(7), S14-S1. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e318229f550
Fanning, R. M., & Gaba, D. M. (2007), The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simulation in Healthcare, 2(2) 115-125. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e3180315539
Finn, G. M., & Garner, J. (2011). Twelve tips for implementing a successful peer assessment. Medical Teacher, 30(6) 443-446.
Glavin, R. (2009). Using simulations for education, training, and research. Simulation in Healthcare, 4(3) 184. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e3181abea0b
Green, M. L. (2001). Identifying, appraising, and implementing medical education curricula: A guide for medical educators. Annals of Internal Medicine, 135(10), 889-896.
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Issenberg, B. S., McGaghie, W. C., Petrusa, E. R., Gordon, D. L., & Scalese, R. J. (2005). Features and uses of high-fidelity simulation that lead to effective learning: A BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher, 27(1), 10-28. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2923.37.s1.10.x
Kern, D. E., Thomas, P. A., & Hughes, M.T. (Eds.). (2009). Curriculum development for medical education: A six-step approach (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kirkpatrick, D. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2007). The four levels: A practical guide for effective evaluation of training programs. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Meyer, M. N., Connors, H., Hou, Q.,& Gajewski, B. (2011). The effect of simulation on clinical performance. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(5), 269-277. doi:10.1097/SIH.0b013e318223a048
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Raemer, D., Anderson, M., Cheng, A., Fanning, R., Nadkarni, V., & Savoldelli, G. (2011). Research regarding debriefing as part of the learning process. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(7), 552-557.
Ravert, P. (2010). Developing and implementing a simulation program: Baccalaureate nursing education. In W. M. Nehring & F. R. Lashley (Eds.), High-fidelity patient simulation in nursing education (pp.59-74). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Barlett Publishers.
Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., Dufresne, R., & Raemer, D. B. (2006). There’s no such thing as “non-judgmental” debriefing: A theory and method for debriefing with good judgment. Simulation in Healthcare, 1(1) 49-55
Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., & Raemer, D. B. (2007). Which reality matters? Questions on the path to high engagement in healthcare simulation. Simulation in Healthcare. 2(3), 161- 163. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e31813d1035
Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., Raemer, D. B., & Eppich, W. J. (2008). Debriefing as formative assessment: Closing performance gaps in medical education. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15(11), 1010-1016. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00248.x
Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., Rivard, P., Dufresne, R. L., & Raemer, D. B. (2007). Debriefing with good judgment: combining rigorous feedback with genuine inquiry. Anesthesiology Clinics, 25(2), 361-376.
Salas, E., Klein, C., King, H., Salisbury, M., Augenstein, J. S., Birnbach, D. J., Robinson, D. W., & Upshaw, C. (2008). Debriefing medical teams: 12 evidence-based best practices and tips. Joint Commission Journal of Quality and Patient Safety, 34(9), 518-27.
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Simon R., Rudolph, J. W., & Raemer, D. B. (2009). Debriefing assessment for simulation in healthcare–student version. Cambridge, MA: Center for Medical Simulation.
St. Pierre, M., Hofinger, G., Buerschaper, C., & Simon, R. (2011). Crisis management in acute care settings: Human factors, team psychology, and patient safety in a high stakes environment. New York, NY: Springer
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Wang, E. E., Kharasch, M., & Kuruna, D. (2011). Facilitative debriefing techniques for simulation-based learning. Academic Emergency Medicine, 18(2), e5-e5. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.01001.x.
Ziv, A., Wolpe. P. R., Small, S. D., & Glick, S. (2003). Simulation-based medical education: an ethical imperative. Academic Medicine, 78(8), 783-788.
How to Apply
Dr. Nur-Ain Nadir, MD
Interest in medical education and simulation
M3 year: Successful completion of core clerkships
For more information and to apply to this elective, contact Michele Helwick, GME Manager: email@example.com